Word Definition (Many from Dictionary.com and Wiki) Comment Link
a priori [a pre-or-ee] Something that you know without prior experience. A idea that is held to be true based on gut feeling versus empirical evidence. Or, sometimes just - having previous knowledge. Contrast empiricism.    
antinome [an-ta-nome - sometimes pronounced an-tin-o-me] Something that is contradictory or opposite to another; a logical contradiction. - Two ideas about the same topic that can be worked out to a logical conclusion, but conclusions contradict each other.    
antithesis Oratory trick often employed by Gorgias. "My opponent proposes war that would bring us dishonor. I advocate peace, that will bring us honor." Herrick, p.43    
apologia Defense, one type of pleading common to forensic oratory, the other being accusation.    
aporia [uh-poor-ee-uh] A philosophical puzzle or state of puzzlement with no solution - in rhetoric - a rhetorically useful expression of doubt. - In logic - a difficulty encountered in establishing the theoretical truth of a proposition, created by the presence of evidence both for and against it. An impasse when there is both evidence for an against an argument.    
architectonic [ahr-ki-tek-ton-ik] - Usually defines principles of architecture.  In relation to rhetoric, it organizes and gives structure to the other art and disciplines - Richard McKeon, Herrick, p.2.    
arete [ar-a-tey] Virtue - excellence of character, qualities that would be inherent in a "natural leader," a component of ethos (the speaker's character).    
artistic proofs Proofs taught specifically by the art of rhetoric - logos (argument from reason), pathos (ability to create emotion) and ethos (credibility of rhetor)    
Bekker numbers [beck-er] These are the numbers you see in the works of Aristotle. They are like Stephanus numbers in Plato. Wiki says - Bekker numbers take the format of up to four digits, a letter for column 'a' or 'b', then the line number. For example, the beginning of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is 1094a1, which corresponds to page 1094 of Bekker's edition of the Greek text of Aristotle's works, first column, line 1.  They take their name from the editor of that edition, the classical philologist August Immanuel Bekker (1785-1871).   Wiki
catachresis [cat-a-cree-sis] The inexact use of a similar word in place of the proper one to create an unlikely metaphor. For example (from Rhetorica ad Herennium), "'The power of man is short'" or "'the long wisdom in the man.'" From Wiki Wiki
chiasmus [kigh-as-mus] "Chi" is X in Greek. Chiasmus forms an X in the sentence like:
"Ask not what your country can do for you.
Rather ask what
you can do for your country."
colloquy  [call-a-quee] A discussion or dialogue. A formal conversation. A written dialogue.    
congruence Your findings do not contradict each other and are internally consistent. Foss, p.22    
consubstantial Kenneth Burke's term relating to "identification" - it refers to the items common between the rhetorician and the audience. The dictionary meaning: of one and the same substance, essence, or nature.    
contingent "Practical questions about matters that confront everyone and about which there are no definite or unavoidable answers." Herrick, p.15 - In rhetoric, it relates to the contextual circumstances that do not allow an issue to be settled with complete certainty.    
daimon (pronounced die-mone - the plural is daimones, pronounced die-mon-eez) - For Socrates and Greek mythology, the diamon was an attending spirit. Plato showed Socrates as having a daimon in his head that always told him what NOT to do.     
Deliberative oratory Speaking in legislative assemblies- usually about issues that affect the many    
demos The people.    
dialectic Reasoning from common options, directed by established principles of reasoning to probable conclusions. A logical method of debating issues of general interest, starting widely accepted propositions.    
Dionyus [die-on-nye-sis] Greek god of wine, pleasure, festivity, plays.    
discursive Passing aimlessly between subjects Used in Foss p.72  
dissoi logoi [dis-soy low-goy] - counter arguments  - The Sophists learned to argue both sides of an argument. Note: "oi" is a dipthong in Greek that sounds like the "i" in milk. However, I was told by a Greek speaker that it is pronounced as stated.    
doxa public opinion    
empiricism  In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas (contrast "a priori"). John Locke (b.1632 - d. 1704) founded British empiricism Wiki
encomium [en-kome-ee-um] A formal expression of high praise; eulogy: An encomium by the President greeted the returning hero.    
enthymeme [en-thuh-meem] Aristotle's word for an argument built from values, beliefs or knowledge held in common by speaker and audience. From dict: a syllogism or other argument in which a premise or the conclusion is unexpressed Herrick, p. 9  
ephemeral (ee-fem-er-al) - Lasting only a short time. Fleeting.    
Epideictic [ep-ee-deck-tic] Speaking characteristic of public ceremony.     
epideixis [ep-ee-dex-is] "A speech prepared for a formal occasion", Herrick, p.37    
episteme "true knowledge"    
equivocal allowing the possibility of several different meanings, as a word or phrase, esp. with intent to deceive or misguide; susceptible of double interpretation; deliberately ambiguous: an equivocal answer.    
eristic (a-riss-tick) A discourses power to make its point - Eristic, from the ancient Greek word Eris meaning wrangle or strife, often refers to a type of dialogue or argument where the participants do not have any reasonable goal. Wiki says it literally means "designed for victory" (see under Euthydemus). The aim is to win the argument and to not potentially discover a true or probable answer to any specific question or topic. Eristic dialogue is arguing for the sake of conflict, fighting, and often to see who can yell the loudest.
Philosophical Eristic
Plato often contrasted this type of dialogue with the dialectical method and other more reasonable and logical methods. In the dialogue Euthydemus, Plato satirizes eristic. Plato defines Euthydemus' and Dionysodorus' argumentation as 'eristic'. 
See Wiki's info under Euthydemus. Wiki
eros (ee-ross - plural is erotes - a-rote-teez) physical love; sexual desire - Also, the god of love.    
ethos The speaker's character - A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's credibility.

 Sociology. the fundamental character or spirit of a culture; the underlying sentiment that informs the beliefs, customs, or practices of a group or society; dominant assumptions of a people or period: In the Greek ethos the individual was highly valued.
eudaimonia [yoo-die-moan-NEE-uh] Well being - Deliberative oratory was driven by eudaimonia or the well being of the citizens of the polis    
exigence (ěk'sə-jəns) A problem or plight or predicament that requires urgent attention    
Glaucon [glough-con], step brother to Plato    
Gorgias A 5th century Sophist and a Socratic dialogue. In the dialogue, Plato has Socrates; Chaerephon [chair-a-fon], friend who accompanies Socrates; Gorgias, the mature Sophist; Polus, inept student of Gorgias; and Callicles [cal-a-kleez], who gives an encomium on the strong exercising their advantage over the weak.    
hegemony [he-jem-in-ee] The predominate influence - mostly used to show political dominance     
heuristic [hear-riss-tick] A discourses power to promote discovery - encouraging a person to learn - Discovery facts, insights and even self-awareness. - From Wiki - A heuristic is a method to help solve a problem, commonly informal. It is particularly used for a method that often rapidly leads to a solution that is usually reasonably close to the best possible answer. Heuristics are "rules of thumb", educated guesses, intuitive judgments or simply common sense.    
Homeridae [homer-id-ee] name used to describe the decedents of Homer. The may be have been rhapsodes who recited the oral traditions. They are mentioned by Plato, Isocrates and Pindar as early as 485 BCE.    
homilies an admonitory or moralizing discourse. Homiletic    
hypallage [hey-pal-a-gee] the reversal of the expected syntactic relation between two words, as in “her beauty's face” for “her face's beauty.”    
iconoclast 1. a breaker or destroyer of images, esp. those set up for religious veneration.
2. a person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, etc., as being based on error or superstition.
in vino veritas It means "There is truth in wine". When it was pointed out to Socrates that the Spartans were virtuous because they were abstinent, he pointed out that this could be displeasing to the god Dionysus. He then explained the tradition of in vino veritas- A test of young men in which a wine bowl is passed around the table until the guests are tipsy. If the young man remains in control while slightly drunk, he has passed the test of in vino veritas.    
Inartistic proofs Proofs not belonging to  the art of rhetoric.    
induction In logic, The process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances.    
interlocutor  Someone who takes part in a conversation, often formally or officially. Socrates is best when he faces an intelligent interlocutor    
kairos [kigh-ross] Generally means, "timing" or "the right circumstances." - Kairos was central to the Sophists, who stressed the rhetor's ability to adapt to and take advantage of changing, contingent circumstances. In Panathenaicus, Isocrates writes that educated people are those “who manage well the circumstances which they encounter day by day, and who possess a judgment which is accurate in meeting occasions as they arise and rarely misses the expedient course of action”.

Kairos is also very important in Aristotle's scheme of rhetoric. Kairos is, for Aristotle, the time and space context in which the proof will be delivered. Kairos stands alongside other contextual elements of rhetoric: The Audience which is the psychological and emotional makeup of those who will receive the proof; and, To Prepon which is the style with which the orator clothes their proof.

Also within the idea of Kairos is that truth is relevant to the circumstances.
See Herrick p.37  
kolakeia [kol-ak-ee-ah] Flattery. Promising people what they want without regard for what is best for them.    
logographos Professional speechwriter (especially around the 5th and 4th century BCE)    
logos  An account. A clear and logical explanation of a true art or techne. Word. Argument. Aristotle used the term to mean "an argument from  reason" - Wiki.    
MENU See the Glossary of rhetorical terms on Wiki (I've added some there) Wiki  
mimesis 1. Rhetoric. imitation or reproduction of the supposed words of another, as in order to represent his or her character.
2. The imitative representation of nature and human behavior in art and literature 
mythos [mi-thoss] Beliefs that are influenced by ideas of the supernatural    
Neo-Aristotelianism The Neo-Aristotelian method of rhetorical criticism exams the effect of the communication on its audience. The measure of effect is part of the criticism. Foss mentions that Wichelns (see 1925 CE) suggested that the communicator should deal with things like the speaker's personality, character, the audience's perception of the speaker, the audience, the speaker's motives, the speaker's proofs, the speaker's mode of expression, manner of delivery and the immediate and long-term effect of the communication. Early on, Neo-Aristotelianism was only used to critique speeches versus written material, as it sought to discover the immediate effects that occur upon delivery. Foss, p.26.    
nihilism In Philosophy.
a. an extreme form of skepticism: the denial of all real existence or the possibility of an objective basis for truth.
b. nothingness or nonexistence.
Gorgias was very nihilistic.  
nomos Social custom or convention; rule by agreement among the citizens. Contrast "themos", which is law derived from the authority of the king. Contrast physis, or natural law, and logos, the Platonic source of absolute truth. Contrast "phusis" or nature - our animal instincts vs social convention. The Sophists worried Athens because of their belief in nomos. To them, law as a matter of public agreement.  
oligarchy [ol-a-gar-key] oligarchic - Government by a few, especially by a small faction of persons or families. The elite of Athens deemed the Sophists a threat to the more oligarchic way of thinking. They would prefer that education be out of reach to the common middle class.  
ontology The branch of metaphysics that studies the nature of existence or being as such. From Wiki -> Ontology is a study of conceptions of reality and the nature of being. In philosophy, ontology  is the study of being or existence and forms the basic subject matter of metaphysics. It seeks to describe or posit the basic categories and relationships of being or existence to define entities and types of entities within its framework.    
Pan-Hellenism The goal of uniting all Greek city-states into one political body. Demosthenes was killed by Antipater because Demosthenes was promoting pan-Hellenism.  
pathos [pay-thoss] The power of a writing, speech, work of art, etc. to evoke emotion.    
pedagogy 1. the function or work of a teacher; teaching.
2. the art or science of teaching; education; instructional methods.
Isocrates highly refined pedagogical approaches became models for later educators. - Herrick, p.45  
pentadic (pen-tad-ic) of, or relating to a pentad -
1. a period of five years.
2. a group of five.
3. the number five.
performative –adjective Philosophy, Linguistics.
1. (of an expression or statement) performing an act by the very fact of being uttered, as with the expression “I promise,” that performs the act of promising.
2. a performative utterance.
Foss, p.18, speaks of the pentadic analysis as a method of research. The five items are 1. terms of act, 2. purpose, 3. agent, 4. agency and 5. the scene for the artifact.  
Phaedrus [feed-druss] - Socratic dialogue about love.    
phusis Greek word for "nature". The struggle between nomos and phusis is the struggle between the agreed upon morality of the group (the zeitgeist) and the animal instinct and drive for pleasure.    
pistis "mere belief" versus knowledge. It's the Greek word for "faith".    
pluralism While there are many uses of the term, in philosophy, pluralism - from wiki - Pluralism in epistemology is the position that there is not one consistent set of truths about the world, but rather many. Often this is associated with pragmatism, cultural relativism, and conceptual relativism.     
polemic 1. a controversial argument, as one against some opinion, doctrine, etc.
2. a person who argues in opposition to another; controversialist.
The speeches of Isocrates were some of the earliest polemical treatises on political topics, Herrick, p.45  
Polus Polus is a character in the dialogue Gorgias. He is a student of Gorgias. Herrick says that Polus is one of the Sophists who made an important contribution to rhetoric, p.35. However, no reference was given.  
postmodern adj.   Of or relating to art, architecture, or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes: "It [a roadhouse] is so architecturally interesting . . . with its postmodern wooden booths and sculptural clock" (Ruth Reichl).     
prolix 1. extended to great, unnecessary, or tedious length; long and wordy.
2. (of a person) given to speaking or writing at great or tedious length.
—Related forms
pro·lix·ness, noun
pro·lix·ly, adverb 
protreptic A discourses power to persuade - Protreptic is a mode of classical rhetoric associated originally with the Sophists who used this style in speeches for recruiting students. The philosopher would achieve this end by discussing the fallacies and deficiencies of rival schools while extolling the virtues of their own. Over time the style came to be associated with all the major philosophical schools, especially during the Second Sophistic.

The term derives from the Greek word προτρέπω (a compound of πρό- and τρέπω) which means "to urge forward; to exhort; to persuade."
rationalism From Wiki - In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification" (Lacey 286). In more technical terms it is a method or a theory "in which the criterion of truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive" (Bourke 263). Different degrees of emphasis on this method or theory lead to a range of rationalist standpoints, from the moderate position "that reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge" to the radical position that reason is "the unique path to knowledge" (Audi 771).

Within the Western philosophical tradition, "rationalism begins with the Eleatics, Pythagoreans, and Plato, whose theory of the self-sufficiency of reason became the leitmotif of Neo-Platonism and idealism" (Runes 263).
rhapsode One who recited epic and other poetry, especially professionally, in ancient Greece.    
salon A gathering, private and public, of intellectuals to meet, discuss ideas and watch artistic performances. Madame de Scudery was a proponent of the French salon.    
sententiae [sen-ten-sha] -- a aphorism or phrase. Herrick says this word descibed phrases that were recognized from ancient writings like the text of the Bible or Aristotle. These phrases could be mentioned in a debate to make a point, and the audience would not need long explanation. Herrick, p.124  
soliloquy –noun, plural -quies.
1. an utterance or discourse by a person who is talking to himself or herself or is disregardful of or oblivious to any hearers present (often used as a device in drama to disclose a character's innermost thoughts): Hamlet's soliloquy begins with “To be or not to be.”
2. the act of talking while or as if alone.
solipsism 1. Philosophy. the theory that only the self exists, or can be proved to exist.  Gorgias was a solipsist, as recorded by the Roman skeptic Sextus Empiricus.  Wiki
sophistic rhetoric Communication that uses any and all means to produce acquiescence, Foss p.28    
stasis For Cicero, statsis was a struggle or stopping point in an argument (Herrick, p. 98)    
Stephanus Page Numbers Stephanus Page Numbers.  Recently (about 420 years ago), a Plato scholar named Stephanus published the first printed version of the Republic (Geneva, 1578). Since then, scholars have generally referred to Stephanus’ page numbers, like citing chapter and verse in the Bible, to locate specific passages. The Super-Jowett and Restatement versions both use these numbers, contained in curly brackets (like these: { } ), to locate specific places in the text.    
syllogism Logic A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion; for example, All humans are mortal, the major premise, I am a human, the minor premise, therefore, I am mortal, the conclusion.   Link
teleology 1. the doctrine that final causes exist.
2. the study of the evidences of design or purpose in nature.
3. such design or purpose.
4. the belief that purpose and design are a part of or are apparent in nature.
5. (in vitalist philosophy) the doctrine that phenomena are guided not only by mechanical forces but that they also move toward certain goals of self-realization.
telos (tel-loss or tee-lohs, professor Michael Segrue pronounces it tee-lohs) From Greek, meaning purpose or the end of a goal-oriented process. This concept is explored in Plato's Theaetetus [thee-a-tee-tuss] (middle dialogue asking "what is knowledge?" Theaetetus believes it is sense perception.) and the Timaeus [ti-may-us] (late dialogue) as part of the "examined life". Timaeus is an astronomer and the discussion is whether the universe was created with a purpose. They discuss the elements: earth, air, wind, fire.    
Theodorus of Cyrene Theodorus was a Greek Mathematician who was admired by Plato. He is mentioned in the Theatetus. He should not be confused with Theodorus the Atheist, also from Cyrene.